Using the Grep Command

The grep command is a search command built into a variety of Unix based operating systems. This command line utility, whose name stems from the original Unix term which means “search globally for lines matching the regular expression, and print them,” can be accessed using the command line or terminal from anywhere in the Unix operating system. When given a particular list of files to search through, the grep command becomes especially useful, as it can search through any amount of text to find exactly what you are looking for. The corresponding lines are then outputted to the computer screen for easy access.

The grep command can be used in a variety of ways, from the most simplistic, usually only allowing for the location of the file and the term you are searching for, to highly complex, making use of a variety of operators and extra parameters.

Here is a basic grep command:

grep Hello letter.txt

This command will search the file, “letter.txt,” for all instances of the word “Hello.” It is important to note that the word “hello” will not be printed to the screen because the grep command is inherently case sensitive. This feature can be disabled by including the flag “-i” before the word you are searching for, as in the example below:

grep -i Hello letter.txt

Using a command like this will display all instances of the word “Hello” no matter where any capitalizations occur.

Here is another example of a grep command:

grep ‘^and’ mydocument.txt

Placing a caret before a word will make the Unix grep command only search for that word if it appears at the beginning of a column of text. This means that the grep command will not find any words such as “candy” or “band,” but will only find the word “and” as it appears by itself.

Using the SORT Command

The Unix sort command is a command for the Unix family of operating systems. It is designed to sort whatever information you give it. The command can be used for a variety of purposes, but it is most frequently employed when there are a number of different files which need to be ordered in some particular way. When the command is executed, the files which were sorted will be printed to the screen in an easy to view box with the files sorted per your instructions.

Using the Unix sort command is very easy and only requires the most basic of command line knowledge. While there are a few parameters that can be passed to the sort command and a few flags that may be of use to you for more complex sorting, the basic function is very easy to use. For a pipeline sort, the command “ps -ef | sort” is used; and for a numeric sort, the command “ls -al | sort” is used.

Some of the various flags that can be used for the sort command include: -r if you wish to sort your data in the reverse order, -f if you wish to ignore the specific case of a letter, -n if you want to do a numeric sort, -b if you wish to ignore any leading blank spaces, and -M if you wish to sort by month.

Below is an example of a numeric sort:

ls -al | sort +4n | more

This Unix sort command will sort the data in ascending, or smallest to largest, numeric order. The more command is used in case the data may be too much to fit on one screen. This same function, in the reverse order, can be written as so:

ls -al | sort +4nr | more

This Unix sort command will perform the same sort over the same data as the previous sort function, but it will list the data in descending order, or largest to smallest.

Using the TOP command

Top can be found on pretty much any Linux distribution including popular ones such as Ubuntu, Fedora, and OpenSUSE, which are among the easiest to install and try out.

The commands to get help with Top on Linux are the same on Mac OS X, Top -h for a condensed list of commands, and man Top for a much more verbose explanation of all available options.

It has a powerful interactive mode that is active by default when Top is started, and is probably going to be the primary way in which Top is operated since it provides the most flexibility and ease of use. A variety of commands can be used in the form of just letter key presses to manipulate what is being seen. Here are a few examples.

To sort processes by memory usage, simply press M (shift-m on the keyboard). To sort by CPU usage press P (shift-p). A full list of fields can be seen by pressing f , which will show the fields with their appropriate letter (which can be used to sort by that field).

With the f key, users can also opt to add a new field to display by pressing f and then the letter representing the key. For example, to add a code size field (CODE), press f then r (as shown in the field list).

Users can set the delay time for updates by just pressing s, putting in a desired number of seconds, and pressing enter. It will then update in that number of seconds, but updates can be done at any desired time by pressing the space bar.

To change the number of processes shown press n, put in the desired number, and press enter.

Users can even kill processes from within Top if a rogue process or a program of some kind will not quit or some process is using too many resources. To do so press k, enter that process’s PID (Process ID, which can be read in Top), and press enter.

Linux top also supports the cumulative mode, which can be simply toggled by pressing S (shift-s). A full list of all available interactive commands is available in the Top manual page (man top).

Of course, it is still possible to start top with some options already set. For example, top -d 5 causes Top to refresh its data every five seconds (equivalent to s and 5 in the interactive mode). The top -q displays information without any delay and runs it with the highest priority if Top is run as a superuser (or root).

Top can also be started to show only a few updates then quit automatically. Just run Top -n 10, for instance, to have Top show 10 iterations of information before quitting.

Another interesting command line option is top -b, which runs Top in a batch mode suitable for recording into a text file. Instead of just refreshing information on screen, it prints it out in batches every specified number of seconds until all iterations run out (set by -n as mentioned above) or until it is quit. To write it out into a text file called top.txt stored in a local directory, just run top -b > top.txt.

Just as in Mac OS X, it is possible to combine multiple commands to configure Top at its start. For example, run top -d 5 -n 10 to start top with a refresh rate of five seconds and have it update only 10 times before quitting.

To quit Top manually, in both OSX and Linux, just press the q key.

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